What would Warren Buffett do

What would Warren Buffett do?

2022 has been eventful.

Stock market has been a lackluster as S&P dropped 16.5% since the start of the year. No matter if you are invested into growth stocks or value stocks, it has been a painful year so far.

The cryptocurrency market is now under immerse pressure as stablecoin UST crashed to zero bringing the whole cryptocurrency market with it. People are now reconsidering if cryptocurrency is a true hedge towards traditional equity market.

If you have already forgotten, we still have the Russia-Ukraine conflict, the dealing with post COVID-19 and Johnny Depp-Amber Heard trial ongoing. It is one perfect long storm.

Coming back to wealth management, it always interest me to see what the experts in the field are doing. In this case, one question that fascinates me is what would Warren Buffett do?

What Would Warren Buffett Do?

What would Warren Buffett do.

What would Warren Buffett do?

In 2020, COVID19 brought about a new trend. A trend on investing in high growth companies. Cathie Wood became an instant celebrity with her ARKK fund performing being up 300% from the bottom of March 2020 at one time. Warren Buffett hit the news around the same time. However, it was one where people thought he was losing his magic as his fund was underperforming the ARKK drastically.

As time passes, you can see from the chart above that there was a huge reversal and value investing is now respected again.

Disclaimer: The below discussion will be on the actions of Berkshire Hathaway (BRK) or Warren Buffett. This does not constitute any investment advice.

What is Warren Buffett doing now?

What would Warren Buffett do

What would Warren Buffett do

Warren Buffett invest with a mindset called value investing. In the very simplest form, it means investing into a wonderful business at a sensible price. The challenge is always to find out what is a wonderful business and what is a sensible price.

In the first quarter of 2022, BRK increase their exposure to Chevron (4th biggest position in BRK). This is a timely position as the world reconsiders to purchase oil from Russia.

They also added into Activision Blizzard (ATVI) and Apple (APPL). Interestingly, they purchase ATVI before Microsoft (MSFT) announced that they will buy ATVI at $95/share.

He have also added into Occidental Petroleum (OXY). This is another energy bet that he is taking.

Lastly, he added into HP (HPQ).

What does this tell you?

Personally, I think Warren Buffett has a good grasp of business flow in the United States. Since Biden took office, one of the things he did was to revoke the permit for the Keystone XL pipeline. I read with great interest but have no idea on the implication. Perhaps, this might be a reason why he started investing into oil.

The investment into ATVI was probably a value buy. In an interview Buffett said “It is my purchases, not the manager, who bought it some months ago. And if the deal goes through we make some money, and if the deal doesn’t go through who knows what happens.” Buffett said his decision came down to the fact that Microsoft’s purchase values Activision Blizzard at $95 per share. Activision Blizzard was trading at $75.60 per share as of the close of markets on Friday. Perhaps, he was buying for a good arbitrage opportunity.

Lastly, it is about investing in yourself. Buffett spend his time investing into himself. He reads at least 80% a day. During times of uncertainty, it’s more important than ever to be as valuable as ever, and as Buffett said, the best thing we can do is “be exceptionally good at something.”

Final Thoughts

What will you do?

Personally, I will be reviewing my own portfolio. I believe this is a good time to add new positions even in this current situation. Valuation has been depressed and perhaps a good time to dollar cost average now.

What will you do?

Chengkok is a licensed Financial Services Consultant since 2012. He is an Investment and Critical Illness Specialist. Wealthdojo was created in 2019 to educate and debunk “free financial advice” that was given without context.  

Feel Free To Reach Out To Share Your Thoughts.

Contact: 94316449 (Whatsapp) chengkokoh@gmail.com (Email)
Telegram: Wealthdojo [Continuous Learning Channel]
Reviews: About Me

The views and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of any other agency, organisation, employer or company. Assumptions made in the analysis are not reflective of the position of any entity other than the author.

 

My SRS Portfolio March 2022

My SRS Portfolio and Thoughts [March 2022]

My SRS Portfolio March 2021

My SRS Portfolio March 2022

What an epic start to 2022. In just one quarter we are now in the amidst of the Perfect Long Storm, Russian-Ukraine Tension and Will Smith slapping Chris Rock. Maybe the saving grace is that we will be able to travel to Malaysia (with more freedom) from 1st April.

In any case, this is the SRS update for March 2022. If you are new to SRS, I would encourage you to start from my most read SRS article, 5 Things You Need To Know About SRS to begin.

Disclaimer: This is not and should not be taken as a buy/sell recommendation.

My Thoughts And Consideration

My SRS Portfolio and Thoughts [March 2022]

My SRS Portfolio and Thoughts [March 2022]

The most glaring underperformance continues to be my exposure into Chinese Technology Stocks (SGX:HST). The price is already 41% down since the last time I entered. The question I get asked frequently is how will China do moving ahead.

According to Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee meeting on Dec 2021, the focus on 2022 will be prioritize stability while pursuing progress. This is a great difference from their focus of strengthening antimonopoly rules in 2021. I believe this might be a turning point and am considering a Dollar Cost Averaging into SGX:HST. This is after a capital injection into the SRS for tax purpose.

Final Thoughts

I reemphasize again that this is not and should not be taken as a buy/sell recommendation. Wishing you all the best!

 

Chengkok is a licensed Financial Services Consultant since 2012. He is an Investment and Critical Illness Specialist. Wealthdojo was created in 2019 to educate and debunk “free financial advice” that was given without context.  

Feel Free To Reach Out To Share Your Thoughts.

Contact: 94316449 (Whatsapp) chengkokoh@gmail.com (Email)
Telegram: Wealthdojo [Continuous Learning Channel]
Reviews: About Me

The views and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of any other agency, organisation, employer or company. Assumptions made in the analysis are not reflective of the position of any entity other than the author.

4 Things From Singapore Budget 2022 That Will Affect You and Me

4 Things From Singapore Budget 2022 That Will Affect You and Me

On Feb 18, 2022, Finance Minister Lawrence Wong delivered the Singapore Budget 2022 in Parliament. The topics were broad ranging as it addresses the economy, helping businesses and green initiatives. The focus which I saw was mainly into healthcare, retirement and funding them.

In this article, I will talk about 4 main things from the Singapore Budget 2022 that will affect ordinary people like you and me. In addition, I will talk about the possible impact in a limited context.

4 Things From Singapore Budget 2022 That Will Affect You and Me

4 Things From Singapore Budget 2022 That Will Affect You and Me

#1: GST for You and Me

Singapore will raise Good and Service Tax (GST) from 7% to 9% in 2 stages in 2023 and 2024.

*Groan*

This might be dreadful news for everyone. GST is basically a tax on all goods and service in Singapore. Think of your coffee at Breadtalk, the iPhone you buy from Singtel or the massage at the parlor. We might not “see” GST very often as most shops would have already incorporated GST into their final prices. When GST increase, this will inevitably be passed to consumers like us. It is more important than ever to plan more for our retirement.

Positively thinking, the GST in 2022 is still 7%. If you have any bigger expenditure (Read more: How To Save On Big Ticket Purchases) that you require, you can consider doing so in 2022. These could be things like renovation, buying a laptop etc.

On a side note, this might boost the Singapore economy in 2022.

#2: Vouchers for You and Me

The Assurance Package first announced in 2020 by then Finance Minister Heng Swee Kiat has been topped up to be $6.6B by current Finance Minister Lawrence Wong. The main intention is to help support lower and middle income household in the increase in GST (maintain standard of living) even after the package ends.

The Straits Times actually did a beautiful summary on the vouchers that could be received. For a more detailed look at how much specially you will be getting, the Ministry of Finance page is the place to go.

I can safely say that the minimum that a Singaporean age 21 and above will get at least $700 from 2023 to 2027.

#3: CPF Retirement for You and Me

CPF Retirement Sums Raised

The first impact on CPF retirement is that our retirement sums will be raised by 3.5% per year for the next 5 cohorts that will be turning 2023 to 2027. There have been no mention if this will be reduced after that. It would be good to note that it was previously increasing at 3% per year.

Singapore Budget 2022 CPF Retirement

Singapore Budget 2022 CPF Retirement

This means that more have to be put inside of CPF so that you will be able to have a higher monthly payout at 65. However, this will also mean that you will likely draw out less at age 55. (Read More: 3 Key Changes To CPF Policies From 2022).

It is also worth noting that 8 out of 10 active CPF members aged 55 in 2027 will be expected to hit their BRS securing a basic level of retirement in any case.

CPF Contribution Rates Raised

The second impact on CPF will be of contribution rates for employers and employees will continue to be increased. The first increase has started from 1 Jan 2022. The next increase will be in 2023. This will also mean that more will go into CPF.

It is worth noting that if a CPF member have already hit the FRS, you will be able to withdraw the excess out as cash. Therefore, increase in contribution rate (by the employer) is generally seen as a good sign.

Singapore Budget 2022 CPF Contribution

Singapore Budget 2022 CPF Contribution

#4: Taxes for You and Me

If you are affected by some of these tax, congratulations! You might be the top 1% income earners in Singapore. In the budget 2022, there will be 3 main taxes namely, income tax, property tax and luxury car taxes.

Income Tax

This change will come in for year of assessment 2024. This means that it will be for income earned between 1 Jan 2023 to 31 Dec 2023. There will be 2 additional upper bands.

For chargeable income from $500K to $1M, it will be taxed at 23%.

For chargeable income from $1M and above, it will be taxed at 24%.

Singapore Budget 2022 Effective Income Taxes

Singapore Budget 2022 Effective Income Taxes

In the grand scheme of things, our effective income taxes are still reasonable as compared to many other countries. I believe this will affect the top 1% of us. (Read More: Income Tax Deductible 2021)

Property Taxes

To understand property taxes, there are 2 concepts that you need to know. One is Annual Value (AV) and the other is whether the owner is staying in the property. As the latter is quite clear, I will explain AV.

AV: Estimated gross annual rent of the property if it were to be rented out.

This number is decided by IRAS and there is nothing much you can really do about it. You can find the AV of your property on the IRAS portal. Looking at the photo below, you can have a rough sense by looking at the AV compared with the type of property.

Singapore Budget 2022 Property Taxes

Singapore Budget 2022 Property Taxes

Property taxes will be raised in 2 phrases namely in 2023 and 2024.

Singapore Budget 2022 Property Tax Non Owner Occupied Rates

Singapore Budget 2022 Property Tax Non Owner Occupied Rates

Singapore Budget 2022 Property Tax Owner Occupied Rates

Singapore Budget 2022 Property Tax Owner Occupied Rates

I believe impact will be felt for Non Owner occupied of AV > $45,000 with tax rates increasing from the current 14% to 28% in 2024. These would most likely be an investment property that are collecting rent.

For Owner occupied of AV > $55,000, the tax rates will increase from the current 4% to 10% in 2024. According to Lawrence Wong, this will affect 7% of owner-occupied residential properties. I believe this will be a combination of landed property owners (5% according to Department of Statistics in 2021) and some condominiums owners in central areas (2% of residential properties owners by subtraction). It will not affect most of us.

This is be seen as a form of wealth tax.

Luxury Car Taxes

An additional registration fee (ARF) tier has been created for cars, taxis and goods-cum-passenger vehicles with open market values (OMV) exceeding $80,000.

This will only affect Porsche Cayenne, Lamborghini Urus and Bentley Continental GT, and it will also affect several other makes such as Ferrari, McLaren, Aston Martin, Rolls-Royce and Mercedes-Maybach as well as top-end models in a number of other brands.

I believe this will not impact most people on the ground.

The top 6 luxury car brands in Singapore sold 216 cars in 2019. If demand remains the same, only a extremely small proportion of people will be affected by this. This is definitely a wealth tax.

Singapore Budget 2022 Car Taxes Bentley Continental GT

Singapore Budget 2022 Car Taxes Bentley Continental GT: Seen any of these around?

Conclusion

The budget comprises more than just the above 4. The 4 points above just show how the Singapore Budget 2022 will directly impact you and me.

I wish you the best in your financial journey. Hope to hear from some of you.

Chengkok is a licensed Financial Services Consultant since 2012. He is an Investment and Critical Illness Specialist. Wealthdojo was created in 2019 to educate and debunk “free financial advice” that was given without context.  

Feel Free To Reach Out To Share Your Thoughts.

Contact: 94316449 (Whatsapp) chengkokoh@gmail.com (Email)
Telegram: Wealthdojo [Continuous Learning Channel]
Reviews: About Me

The views and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of any other agency, organisation, employer or company. Assumptions made in the analysis are not reflective of the position of any entity other than the author.

The 2021 Madness. What's Next

The 2021 Madness. What’s Next?

The 2021 Madness. What's Next

The 2021 Madness. What’s Next

The past 2 years have been madness. I believe you saw how COVID-19 took the world by storm. Your company might have been left paralyzed, our governments scrambled and ordinary people that you know became separated from their loved ones.

Just as we think that things are becoming more stable, Omicron emerged. When will this ever end?

First thing first, for readers following Wealthdojo, I would like to thank you for all the support you have given by sharing my articles. It is really a pleasure.

As you know, it is a yearly tradition to write a reflection of the year so that we don’t miss the lessons we learnt (Read More: 2019 Reflection. 2020 Reflection). In this annual 2021’s reflection, I have a new epiphany.

What if things never really ends and these will continue forever?

History In Context

100 Years Of History And The Stock Market

100 Years Of History And The Stock Market

In the last 100 years, things were crazy. If you travel through time to the 1900s and tell someone that you can find all the information in the world in a 6 inch metal piece (smartphone), they will think that you are crazy.

Do you know what else is crazy? Imagine all of these happening just in the last 100 years.

  • 1.3 million Americans died while fighting nine major wars.
  • Four U.S. presidents were assassinated.
  • 675,000 Americans died in a single year from a flu pandemic (This wasn’t even COVID 19. 777,000 and counting died because of COVID-19)
  • 30 separate natural disasters killed at least 400 Americans each
  • 33 recessions lasted a cumulative 48 years.
  • The stock market fell more than 10% from a recent high at least 97 times.
  • Stocks lost a third of their value at least 12 times.
  • Annual inflation exceeded 7% in 20 separate years.

Every single time when we thought things are crazy, we bounced back as a human race to be where we are now. I believe things will be crazier from now on. (Maybe the Metaverse isn’t that crazy after all. More on the Metaverse in the points below.)

The Crazy Things That Happened in 2021

Let’s start with my pet peeve. Over 35% of all the American dollars ever printed by the U.S. government has been printed in 2020! These American dollars are given out for people like shopping vouchers. I cannot imagine how inflation will be like in the near future. This has raised food prices and (unintended so they say) impacted countries like Egypt, Libya, Syria, and Yemen where people are rioting in the streets for having nothing to eat.

We also saw terrible companies’ stock soar insanely high. Companies such as Gamestop (GME), AMC saw great gains. The worse part of it all is that I see speculators trying to rationalize those buys.

One of the biggest property developer in China, Evergrande is on the verge of collapse.

HDB is being sold for millions. Good Class Bungalows are being snapped up like hotcakes in Singapore.

NFT are now sold for millions with the current record of $69 million. Did I mentioned cryptocurrency already? Anyway, here’s the NFT that was sold.

Investing in 2021 is like going to NTUC before PM Lee gives his speech. There will be lot of people buying, stocking up on toilet paper and cup noodles. There will be fair share of people taking photos or videos of situations. It is funny, exciting and everyone will have a story to tell.

Please enjoy my reflections as I reflect on the 2021.

No One Gives a Damn About Long Term Investing Anymore

If they are, they are probably very seasoned investors or part of a Long Term Investing community.

It is not easy being a self directed long term investor. We live in a world of instant gratification. If you want food, just hit the Grab App and you will get it in 30 minutes. If you want a dress, just hit the Shopee App and you will get it in 2 to 3 days. If our internet connection is down for 15 mins, we behave like the world is over. In a world where things comes so easily, the virtue of patience becomes very hard.

The stock market is one where we see unique individuals. Some people treat it as a place to buy high quality companies. Others might treat it like a platform to instantly change their lives by putting all their savings in one company/coin. I don’t think there is right or wrong to this. I just wonder if they do get their intended results.

Social media changed the stock market completely. 🚀🚀🚀. Everyday, we are going to the moon. HODL. 🚀🚀🚀. It almost makes investing looks like it is easy money until it is not. Corrections happen and people suddenly becomes a “long term investor” again. Well.. at least until the correction is over.

AMC TO THE MOON

AMC TO THE MOON: I wonder how this Youtuber is doing now.

I find it so difficult to talk about investing now when their expectation is getting multi-baggers in the next few weeks. If it is not 100%, don’t even bother.

I wonder if people will be ever satisfied by buying and holding quality companies anymore. That being said, my own investment thesis is still investing and holding on to the quality companies in the long run.

Burn Outs Are Real

Do you remember holidays? Holidays are mostly overseas trips requiring you to pay buckets loads of money for you to take a photo over a scenic location. (Kinda look like this).

Burn Outs Are Real

Burn Outs Are Real

Jokes aside, I noticed the lack of holidays causing burns outs among my friends. Doctors, healthcare workers, teachers and people from all walks of lives are reported to have face anxiety, depression and burn outs in the pandemic. It is so hard to walk away from our work now and worse still, we can’t even go for a holiday.

I always thought that holidays were a temporary reset that we need in a driven society. There is always an email that you need to reply. There is always a whatsapp work group chat that you need to give attention to. You are constantly engaged. Although holidays are temporary relief much like Panadol, you might feel that at least it gives you the opportunity to disengage yourself from work and enjoy that moment.

*Important* If you find yourself constantly feeling helpless or trapped, having an increasing cynical outlook of life or lacking motivation, back pains, shoulder aches, gaining those extra pounds around your belly, those might be signs that you are experiencing a burn out. You might need some help. 

I’m not suggesting that I’m an expert to help with burn outs. Pandemic or not, I believe it is very important to take breaks or just a time to do nothing. I can tell you that it is not easy to do nothing. We have NOTHING in our culture that focuses on doing NOTHING. I grow up learning that I should not waste time and I was punished for wasting time.

Took me 5 years to learn that relaxing is not wasting time. This is so important that I’m going to bold and type this sentence again. RELAXING IS NOT A WASTE OF TIME.

Burn outs are real. Take breaks.

The Common Man Behaves Like Experts

Put a smart phone in the hands of ordinary man and they behave like experts. In my university days, I learnt about Bunning-Kruger Effect in Behavior Economics. Dunning-Kruger effect is generally reported as an irrational tendency among certain incompetent individuals systematically to overestimate their true level of competence.

Dunning-Kruger effect

Dunning-Kruger effect

An obvious example is ordinary man or woman becoming “experts” in vaccines overnight and being able to share certain theories. For companies like Moderna who aren’t even sure if their vaccines will work on the Omicron without new data, how can the common man be so sure?

I struggle with this a lot. It seems like everyone thinks there is a conspiracy theory everywhere and they are very convinced about their own theory. The trust in the government is tested regularly with every strain or every spike in COVID-19 cases. Though I feel annoyed when there are heighten restrictions on dining, I believe we are doing all we can to get through this.

Thinking deeply, I believe the struggle of this generation will be to find the right information. We have an overload of information and it is our duty to sleeve through all the noises. I see this in investment as well. There is probably someone you know who talks about Bitcoin and may be earning money if you know what you are doing.

For me, I placed high importance in finding places with right information.

Be Open Minded AND Keep your Eyes Open

I would like to finish off with this statement. I can’t help but feel that the world is constantly changing. Something that might have worked 5 years ago might be obsolete now.

Floppy discs, CDs, DVDs, MP3 players, the pager, overhead projectors, fax machine are just some technologies that once took the world by storm and are obsolete today. The world is changing and so should our minds.

Be open minded.

Be Open Minded

Be Open Minded

I’m currently learning about everything related to the Metaverse and recording them here. You can follow the page if you wish to be updated. I believe that this is an emerging trend and we are still early in the adoption of the technology.

It is also important to keep our eyes open. With the new shiny object in the room, there will be new scams, new rug pulls (I just learnt this term) and new ways to be cheated. Open your eyes and move. There is no guarantee that we will not be hurt but it is important to keep moving.

Final Thoughts

This is probably my last article for the year. Wishing all of you good health and may fortune favor the brave.

What about your reflections in 2021? Let me know in the comment below.

Chengkok is a licensed Financial Services Consultant since 2012. He is an Investment and Critical Illness Specialist. Wealthdojo was created in 2019 to educate and debunk “free financial advice” that was given without context.  

Feel Free To Reach Out To Share Your Thoughts.

Contact: 94316449 (Whatsapp) chengkokoh@gmail.com (Email)
Telegram: Wealthdojo [Continuous Learning Channel]
Reviews: About Me

The views and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of any other agency, organisation, employer or company. Assumptions made in the analysis are not reflective of the position of any entity other than the author.

Will NOV 2021 CPF Changes Affect me

Will Nov 2021 CPF Changes Affect me?

Will NOV 2021 CPF Changes Affect me

Will NOV 2021 CPF Changes Affect me?

2nd Nov marks an important date for many of us. There are changes in the CPF act that will potentially affect us. Please view the original article here. I will help to interpret these changes to those that are affected and how these changes will affect them.

That is the lifeblood of Wealthdojo and I aim to share one Financial Tip a day from my Telegram Channel.

For Retirement Sum Scheme (RSS) Members

If you born before 1958 or have less than $60,000 in your Retirement Account (RA) at age 65, you are probably be in this category. RSS was the main payout scheme prior to the CPF Life.

For the RSS, it will allow you to receive a monthly payout until your retirement saving is depleted. If you continue to work and contribute to your Ordinary Account (OA) and Special Account (SA), the money will sit in your respective accounts. To continue to receive payouts, you will have to apply to transfer money from your OA and SA to RA.

With the new changes, OA and SA saving will be automatically transferred to the RA. There is no need to apply to transfer the money.

I believe this is to make it easier for money to be received by RSS members. Previously, the application might have been a cumbersome process.

For CPF Life Members

As compared to RSS, CPF Life allows you receive monthly payout no matter how long you live.

If you are already receiving your monthly payouts and wishes to contribute more to your RA for higher CPF Life payout, you will have to apply for it.

With the new changes, your new contribution to the RA will be automatically transferred. There is no need to apply to transfer the money.

For People Who Top Up Their CPF

From 1 Jan 2022, tax reliefs will be provided to the giver who tops up the account. The cap for tax reliefs will be set at $8,000 for top up to your Retirement Sum Top Up (RSTU) and voluntary contribution to Medisave Account (MA) for employees.

If you wish to contribute cash top up to your loved ones’ account, the tax relief will be $8,000. This will bring the total to be $16,000 a year.

The top up limit for Medisave will just depend on Basic Healthcare Sum (BHS) moving forward.

If you wish to reduce your taxes with tax reliefs, please be aware of the limits, run your numbers before contributing.

For People Making A Estate Claim From CPF

For un-nominated CPF-monies more than $10,000, all eligible beneficiaries must submit their information and supporting documents to the Public Trustee’s Office (PTO). This could be a long process.

For un-nominated CPF-monies less than $10,000, a beneficiary representative may be appointed to represent all eligible beneficiaries and make one consolidated claim for the dead CPF member’s un-nominated monies.

This representative must be an eligible beneficiary according to the rules of distribution under the Intestate Succession Act or the Administration of Muslim Law Act.

Preferably, you should do you CPF nomination. It is free and took less than 5 minutes for me.

Others

CPF will not retain unclaimed CPF monies after 6 months. No interest will be payable after that. I believe this is to encourage people to quickly claim from CPF.

 

Final Thoughts

Personally, I believe that the new changes are for the better. Certain policies are “smoother” and clearer. Hope it benefits you in the right way. Here’s a summary. In an event of a doubt, please refer back to the CPF Amendment Bill Highlights 2021 here.

Let me know what you think about the changes below.

If you wish to read more CPF, here are our top 5 most read articles.

3 Things To Know Before You Do CPF Shielding

Top 5 CPF Decisions To Be A CPF Millionaire

5 Things You Need To Know About Your CPF

CPF Accrued Interest Trap: Can You Downsize and Retire?

5 mistakes people make using their CPF

 

Chengkok is a licensed Financial Services Consultant since 2012. He is an Investment and Critical Illness Specialist. Wealthdojo was created in 2019 to educate and debunk “free financial advice” that was given without context.  

Feel Free To Reach Out To Share Your Thoughts.

Contact: 94316449 (Whatsapp) chengkokoh@gmail.com (Email)
Telegram: Wealthdojo [Continuous Learning Channel]
Reviews: About Me

The views and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of any other agency, organisation, employer or company. Assumptions made in the analysis are not reflective of the position of any entity other than the author.